Officials at the European Commission have ten Chinese and Indian airlines are facing the prospect of exclusion from airports in the European Union for refusing to comply with rules aimed at regulating greenhouse emissions.
The airlines include Air China and Air India, with both carriers among those accused of not providing emissions data.
Data is required by European rules in order for airlines to participate in a permit system that entitles them to emit greenhouse gases in European airspace.
In a statement, the commission said eight Chinese carriers could face fines totalling €2.4 million, with two Indian airlines facing total fines of €30,000.
Japan, Russia and the United States, as well as China and India, were among about two dozen countries that protested against that expansion early last year.
No airlines have been fined yet for violating the permit system.