Rio mayor Eduardo Paes, who received the flag from London mayor Boris Johnson at the Closing Ceremony on Sunday, waved the flag after stepping off the plane.
He was joined by other officials and Brazilian athletes who competed in London.
Rio will host the Games in 2016, with preparations well underway.
Brazil finished 22nd in the London 2012 medal table, taking 17 medals.
This was two more than in Beijing, China, four years earlier.
Brazilian tourist board Embratur last night thanked London with a stunning water display on the River Thames
Rio will be the first South American city to host the Olympics.
However, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) raised concerns when visiting earlier this year to check on preparations.
Timelines for the construction of stadiums were “already very tight” explained an official report, while “the amount of work to be completed is considerable”.
Breaking Travel News recently caught up with Embratur director of international markets, Marcelo Pedroso, to check up on the latest developments.