The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has released a new financial outlook for the global aviation sector, showing heavy weather ahead.
In total, the body now expects airlines to lose $84.3 billion in 2020, with a net profit margin of -20 per cent.
Revenues will fall 50 per cent, down to $419 billion from the $838 billion seen in 2019.
In 2021, losses are expected to be cut to $15.8 billion as revenues rise to $598 billion.
“Financially, 2020 will go down as the worst year in the history of aviation.
“On average, every day of this year will add $230 million to industry losses.
“In total that’s a loss of $84.3 billion.
“It means that - based on an estimate of 2.2 billion passengers this year - airlines will lose $37.54 per passenger.
“That’s why government financial relief was and remains crucial as airlines burn through cash,” said Alexandre de Juniac, IATA director general.
“Provided there is not a second and more damaging wave of Covid-19, the worst of the collapse in traffic is likely behind us.
“A key to the recovery is universal implementation of the re-start measures agreed through the International Civil Aviation Organisation to keep passengers and crew safe.
“And, with the help of effective contact tracing, these measures should give governments the confidence to open borders without quarantine measures.
“That’s an important part of the economic recovery because about ten per cent of the world’s GDP is from tourism and much of that depends on air travel.
“Getting people safely flying again will be a powerful economic boost,” said de Juniac.
Passenger demand evaporated as international borders closed and countries locked down to prevent the spread of the virus.
This is the biggest driver of industry losses.
At the low point in April, global air travel was roughly 95 per cent below 2019 levels.
There are indications that traffic is slowly improving. Nonetheless, traffic levels (in revenue passenger kilometres) for 2020 are expected to fall by 54.7 per cent compared to 2019.
Passenger numbers will roughly halve to 2.25 billion, approximately equal to 2006 levels.
Capacity, however, cannot be adjusted quickly enough with a 40 per cent decline expected for the year.
Passenger revenues are expected to fall to $241 billion (down from $612 billion in 2019).
This is greater than the fall in demand, reflecting an expected 18 per cent fall in passenger yields as airlines try to encourage people to fly again through price stimulation.
Load factors are expected to average 62.7 per cent for 2020, some 20 percentage points below the record high of 82.5 per cent achieved in 2019.
Costs are not falling as fast as demand.
Total expenses of $517 billion are 34.9 per cent below 2019 levels but revenues will see a 50 per cent drop.
Non-fuel unit costs will rise sharply by 14.1 per cent, as fixed costs are spread over fewer passengers.
Lower utilisation of aircraft and seats as a result of restrictions will also add to rising costs.
Fuel prices offer some relief.
In 2019 jet fuel averaged $77/barrel whereas the forecast average for 2020 is $36.8.
Cargo is the one bright spot.
Compared to 2019, overall freight tonnes carried are expected to drop by 10.3 million tonnes to 51 million tonnes.
However, a severe shortage in cargo capacity due to the unavailability of belly cargo on (grounded) passenger aircraft is expected to push rates up by some 30 per cent for the year.
Cargo revenues will reach a near-record $110.8 billion in 2020 (up from $102.4 billion in 2019).
As a portion of industry revenues, cargo will contribute approximately 26 per cent, up from 12 per cent in 2019.