Taxi drivers across Europe have blockaded major cities in a coordinated protest against online booking services such as Uber.
Paris, Madrid, London, Milan, Berlin and other cities in protest against the rise of taxi services booked using smartphone apps.
Madrid was among the worst affected, with the six biggest taxi associations in the Spanish capital asking drivers to observe a 24-hour stoppage until early Thursday.
This despite Uber not yet being available in the city.
Trafalgar Square in London was also blocked, with drivers arguing the mobile app was in affect a taxi meter, and thus illegal.
Only black cabs are legally entitled to use such meters in London.
Transport for London estimated about 4,000 drivers had taken part in the action, with roads gridlocked around Parliament Square.
A more modest protest also took place in Milan, while Rome and Naples were also hit.